This post is in response to Prosperity.
One of my colleagues posted his views on ways to increase India’s prosperity. His suggested action items -
  1. Adopt / Guide a Student
  2. Guide to a local business to scale
My two cents -
We don't need to tread through multiple layers of complexity to tackle fundamental issues of poverty, inequality and lack of justice. There’s a much simpler route - Education and more education.
Some would argue that there is no single magical silver bullet. After all, educated people have a major role in creating major global problems, in the first place. I'd say - they require still more education to clean up the mess, else face the consequences.
Let's look at a couple of core issues here -
Population explosion - What is the solution? According to Swedish professor, Dr. Hans Rosling from Gapminder Foundation, education is a powerful solution known to work. He makes a compelling argument and presents the data to prove it. Link. Must see.
Sustainability - Again awareness, a.k.a education about sustainable practices. How many have read Jared Diamond’s Collapse: How societies chose to fail or succeed? Science journal review said 
“It is probably the most important book you will ever read”.
I posted my notes here.  Must read. How many design companies follow William McDonough’s Cradle-to-Cradle?
Education / Learning is a liberating experience. It has transformational ability. Infinite productivity gains and limitless potential for economic progress does not address the root cause. Economic progress is merely an indicator. A great economy may lessen the pain, but it's far cry from being a cure. Jared Diamond presents a much more comprehensive list of 12 problems leading to potential societal collapse. Economic growth is not one of them.
Bottomline -
"Education, more education, education made perfect is the only panacea for all our country's ills and evils"
-Revered Sir Anand Sarup Kt., August Founder of Dayalbagh, Convocation Address, Agra University, 1935
The above text forms the core mission of my alma-mater. Here.